Ever wondered why some people are addicted to scrolling their Instagram feed? Why they make certain applications a part of their “day”?
The book Hooked: How to build habit-forming products by Nir Eyal has answers to all such questions.
Before we move on to the summary of the book, here are few questions that you may have right now:
•Who should read this article?🤔
From Designers to Engineers, Startup Founders to a kid aspiring to build something great, or anyone who cares about driving customer engagement.
•What are hooks?🤔
Hooks are series of experiences that can profoundly change the behavior of users. The more users run through these hooks the more likely they are to form habits.
•Where are these hooks? 🤔
You can find hooks anywhere! Any experience which can burrow our minds and wallets is a hook.
•How are habits formed? 🤔
Habits form when the brain takes a shortcut and starts taking action with no conscious thoughts. Fostering consumer habits is an effective way to increase the value of a company by driving higher customer lifetime value (CLTV)
•What is CLTV? 🤔
The amount of money made from a customer before that person switches to a competitor stops using the product or dies. User habits increase how long and frequently customers use a product, resulting in higher CLTV.
•What are the advantages of making your product hooked? 🤔
a.) Increased CLTV.
b.) Users become brand evangelists — bringing in new users at little or no cost.
c.) Habits once formed are difficult to die.
d.) Increase in usage of product — increased revenue.
•How are you going to make your product hooked? 🤔
Follow the Hooked Model!
•What is the Hooked Model? 🤔
The hooked model basically consists of four stages:
c.) Variable Reward
Habits are not the same thing as addictions. The latter describes persistent, compulsive dependency on a behavior or substance that harms the user. Addictions by definition are self-destructive.
The book is a gem. Each and every line of it is relevant. I have tried to collect the main ideas which are being discussed in this book. For a better understanding of the hooked model, I would recommend reading the full book.
Here we go:
It is the actuator of behavior or we can say that it is the spark plug in the engine. These triggers come in two types: External and Internal.
External Triggers are embedded with information, which tells the user what to do next.
These are usually implemented in products by providing Call To Actions (CTA’s).
Too many choices require the user to evaluate multiple options. Too many choices or irrelevant options can cause hesitation, confusion, or worse — abandonment.
Unlike External Triggers, which use sensory stimuli like a morning alarm clock or giant “Login Now” button, we can't see, touch, or hear an Internal Trigger. Internal Triggers manifest automatically manifest in our mind.
Emotions, particularly negative ones, are powerful internal triggers and greatly influence our daily routines.
Feelings of boredom, loneliness, frustration, and confusion often instigate a slight pain or irritation and prompt an almost instantaneous and often mindless action to quell negative sensations.
Positive emotions can also serve as internal triggers and maybe even triggered themselves by a need to satisfy something that is bothering us.
For example, if a user is at someplace which is exotic, chances are there that the first thought which will come to his mind will be of taking a photograph and posting it on his Instagram account.
The urge of sharing your life with friends and relatives on social networks is an internal trigger.
The trigger informs the user of what to do next. However, if the user does not take action, the trigger is useless.
The more effort (either physical or mental) required to perform the desired action, the less likely it is to occur.
•What drives the actions of the user? 🤔
There are three ingredients to initiate any and all actions:
Action will occur when motivation, ability, and a trigger are present at the same time and in sufficient degrees.
In this step of Hooked Model, we reward our users by solving a problem, reinforcing their motivation for the action taken in the previous phase.
To hold the attention of users, the product must have an ongoing degree of novelty.
Recent experiments reveal that variability increases activity in the nucleus accumbens which results in spikes in the level of dopamine, driving our hungry search for rewards.
A great example of Variable Reward is incorporated by Google Pay. Its reward mechanism for transactions through its addictive use of scratch cards has gamified routine transactions. The uncertainty of money one will receive after scratching the card is a complete game changer!
Quiz Time ⚡
Is it only me or you are also good friends with “Better luck next time 😥”
Variable Rewards can be divided into three types:
Habit-forming products utilize one or more of these variable rewards types.
Rewards of the Tribe: We are a species that depends on one another. Rewards of the tribe or social rewards are driven by our connectedness with other people. People who observe someone being rewarded for a particular behavior are more likely to alter their own beliefs and subsequent actions.
Rewards of the Hunt: It is the search for resources. It existed long before the advent of computers. Where we once hunted for food, today we hunt for other things.
You must be thinking about how this can be incorporated digitally? Resources are not only food and cash. Anything which can benefit us at some point in our lives can be termed as a resource. For example, the action of scrolling the Twitter feed is fed by the variable reward of finding a relevant tweet which is a resource.
Rewards of the Self: We seek rewards of the self for a more personal form of gratification. For example, Google created “Priority Inbox” in Gmail. It cleverly segments e-mails into sorted folders to increase the frequency of users achieving “inbox zero” — a near-mystical state of having no unread e-mails.
Only by understanding what truly matters to users, companies can match the right variable reward to their intended behavior.
Gamification — defined as the use of game-like elements in nongame environments is being used by many companies with varying success. Points, badges, and leaderboards can prove effective but only if they scratch the user’s itch.
Experiences with finite variability become less engaging because they eventually become predictable.
The more users invest time and effort into a product or service, the more they value it.
The IKEA Effect: Unlike its competitors who sell preassembled merchandise, IKEA puts its customers to work. It turns out there’s a hidden benefit to making users invest physical effort in assembling the product — asking customers to assemble their own furniture tends them to adopt an irrational love of the furniture they built. The users have invested in the products through their labor.
Asking users to invest comes after users have received variable rewards, not before. The core idea behind the investment phase is to leverage the user’s understanding that the service will get better with use (and personal investment). Like a good friendship, the more efforts people put in, the more both parties benefit.
Investment can also be in terms of data, for example — In Spotify, we come back to play the playlist that we have been building since ever.
Reputation is a form of stored value that increases the likelihood of using a service. It makes users more likely to stick with whichever service they have invested their efforts in to maintain a high-quality score.
You are now equipped to use the Hooked Model to ask yourself these fundamental questions for building effective hooks:
Creating habits can be a force for good, but it can also be used for nefarious purposes. Remember the moral responsibility you have as the product maker while creating habits.
Thanks for reading till the end 💖👏
Источник: UX Planetux-design book-recommendations designer hooked product-design
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