How To Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Rocky Linux 8 |

IT-блоги How To Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Rocky Linux 8

### Introduction [Let's Encrypt]( is a certificate authority (CA) that provides free certificates for [Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption]( It simplifies the process of creation, validation, signing, installation, and renewal of certificates by providing a software client—[Certbot]( In this tutorial you'll set up a TLS/SSL certificate from [Let’s Encrypt]( on a Rocky Linux 8 server running [Nginx]( as a web server. Additionally, you will automate the certificate renewal process using a [cron]( job. ## Prerequisites In order to complete this guide, you will need: * One Rocky Linux 8 server set up by following [the Rocky Linux 8 Initial Server Setup guide](, including a non-root user with `sudo` privileges and a firewall. * Nginx installed on the Rocky Linux 8 server with a configured server block. You can learn how to set this up by following our tutorial [How To Install Nginx on Rocky Linux 8]( * A fully registered domain name. This tutorial will use `your_domain` as an example throughout. You can purchase a domain name on [Namecheap](, get one for free on [Freenom](, or use the domain registrar of your choice. * Both of the following DNS records set up for your server. You can follow [this introduction to DigitalOcean DNS]( for details on how to add them. * An A record with `<^>your_domain<^>` pointing to your server's public IP address. * An A record with `www.<^>your_domain<^>` pointing to your server's public IP address. ## Step 1 — Installing the Certbot Let's Encrypt Client First, you need to install the `certbot` software package. Log in to your Rocky Linux 8 machine as your non-root user: ```command [environment local] ssh <^>sammy<^>@<^>your_server_ip<^> ``` The `certbot` package is not available through the package manager by default. You will need to enable the [EPEL]( repository to install Certbot. To add the Rocky Linux 8 EPEL repository, use `dnf install`: ```command sudo dnf install epel-release ``` When asked to confirm the installation, type and enter `y`. Now that you have access to the extra repository, install all of the required packages: ```command sudo dnf install certbot python3-certbot-nginx ``` This will install Certbot itself and the Nginx plugin for Certbot, which is needed to run the program. The installation process will ask you about importing a GPG key. Confirm it so the installation can complete. You have now installed the Let's Encrypt client, but before obtaining certificates, you need to make sure that all required ports are open. To do this, you will update your firewall settings in the next step. ## Step 2 — Updating the Firewall Rules Since your prerequisite setup enables `firewalld`, you will need to adjust the firewall settings in order to allow external connections on your Nginx web server. To check which services are already enabled, run the command: ```command sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --list-all ``` You’ll receive output like this: ``` [secondary_label Output] public target: default icmp-block-inversion: no interfaces: sources: services: cockpit dhcpv6-client <^>http<^> ssh ports: protocols: masquerade: no forward-ports: source-ports: icmp-blocks: rich rules: ``` If you do not see `http` in the services list, enable it by running: ```command sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http ``` To allow `https` traffic, run the following command: ```command sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https ``` To apply the changes, you’ll need to reload the firewall service: ```command sudo firewall-cmd --reload ``` Now that you've opened up your server to `https` traffic, you’re ready to run Certbot and fetch your certificates. ## Step 3 — Obtaining a Certificate Now you can request an SSL certificate for your domain. When generating the SSL Certificate for Nginx using the `certbot` Let’s Encrypt client, the client will automatically obtain and install a new SSL certificate that is valid for the domains provided as parameters. If you want to install a single certificate that is valid for multiple domains or subdomains, you can pass them as additional parameters to the command. The first domain name in the list of parameters will be the *base* domain used by Let’s Encrypt to create the certificate, and for that reason you will pass the top-level domain name as first in the list, followed by any additional subdomains or aliases: ```command sudo certbot --nginx -d <^>your_domain<^> -d www.<^>your_domain<^> ``` This runs `certbot` with the `--nginx` plugin, and the base domain will be `your_domain`. To execute the interactive installation and obtain a certificate that covers only a single domain, run the `certbot` command with: ```command sudo certbot --nginx -d <^>your_domain<^> ``` The `certbot` utility can also prompt you for domain information during the certificate request procedure. To use this functionality, call `certbot` without any domains: ```command sudo certbot --nginx ``` You will receive a step-by-step guide to customize your certificate options. Certbot will ask you to provide an email address for lost key recovery and notices and to agree to the terms of service. If you did not specify your domains on the command line, Certbot will look for a `server_name` directive and will give you a list of the domain names found. If your server block files do not specify the domain they serve explicitly using the `server_name` directive, Certbot will ask you to provide domain names manually. For better security, Certbot will automatically configure redirecting all traffic on port `80` to `443`. When the installation successfully finishes, you will receive a message similar to this: ``` [secondary_label Output] IMPORTANT NOTES: - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/<^>your_domain<^>/fullchain.pem Your key file has been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/<^>your_domain<^>/privkey.pem Your cert will expire on 2022-11-14. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again with the "certonly" option. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot renew" - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: Donating to EFF: ``` The generated certificate files will be available within a subdirectory named after your base domain in the `/etc/letsencrypt/live` directory. Now that you have finished using Certbot, you can check your SSL certificate status. Verify the status of your SSL certificate by opening the following link in your preferred web browser (don’t forget to replace <^>`your_domain`<^> with your base domain): ```<^>your_domain<^> ``` This site contains an SSL test from [SSL Labs](, which will start automatically. At the time of this writing, default settings will give an **A** rating. You can now access your website using the `https` prefix. However, you must renew certificates periodically to keep this setup working. In the next step, you will automate this renewal process. ## Step 4 — Setting Up Auto-Renewal Let’s Encrypt certificates are valid for 90 days, but it’s recommended that you renew the certificates every 60 days to allow for a margin of error. The Certbot Let's Encrypt client has a `renew` command that automatically checks the currently installed certificates and tries to renew them if they are less than 30 days away from the expiration date. You can test automatic renewal for your certificates by running this command: ```command sudo certbot renew --dry-run ``` The output will be similar to this: ``` [secondary_label Output] Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/<^>your_domain<^>.conf - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run Plugins selected: Authenticator nginx, Installer nginx Renewing an existing certificate Performing the following challenges: http-01 challenge for Waiting for verification... Cleaning up challenges - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - new certificate deployed with reload of nginx server; fullchain is /etc/letsencrypt/live/<^>your_domain<^>/fullchain.pem - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry ** (The test certificates below have not been saved.) Congratulations, all renewals succeeded. The following certs have been renewed: /etc/letsencrypt/live/<^>your_domain<^>/fullchain.pem (success) ... ``` Notice that if you created a bundled certificate with multiple domains, only the base domain name will show in the output, but the renewal will work for all domains included in this certificate. A practical way to ensure your certificates will not get outdated is to create a [`cron`]( job that will periodically execute the automatic renewal command for you. Since the renewal first checks for the expiration date and only executes the renewal if the certificate is less than 30 days away from expiration, it is safe to create a cron job that runs every week, or even every day. Edit the crontab to create a new job that will run the renewal twice per day. To edit the crontab for the root user, run: ```command sudo crontab -e ``` Your text editor will open the default crontab, which is an empty text file at this point. Enter insert mode by pressing `i` and add in the following line: ``` [label crontab] 0 0,12 * * * python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && certbot renew --quiet ``` When you're finished, press `ESC` to leave insert mode, then `:wq` and `ENTER` to save and exit the file. To learn more about the text editor Vi and its successor Vim, check out our [Installing and Using the Vim Text Editor on a Cloud Server]( tutorial. This will create a new cron job that will execute at noon and midnight every day. `python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)'` will select a random minute within the hour for your renewal tasks. The `renew` command for Certbot will check all certificates installed on the system and update any that are set to expire in less than thirty days. `--quiet` tells Certbot not to output information or wait for user input. More detailed information about renewal can be found in the [Certbot documentation]( ## Conclusion In this guide, you installed the Let's Encrypt client Certbot, downloaded SSL certificates for your domain, and set up automatic certificate renewal. If you have any questions about using Certbot, you can check the official [Certbot documentation]( You can also check the official [Let’s Encrypt blog]( for important updates from time to time.

Источник: DigitalOcean Community Tutorials

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